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琵琶行 並序
The Song Of A Guitar

元和十年,予左遷九江郡司馬。明年秋,送客湓浦口。聞船中夜彈琵琶者。聽其音,錚錚然有京都聲。問其人,本長安倡女,嘗學琵琶於穆、曹二善才。年長色衰,委身為賈人婦。遂命酒,使快彈數曲。元和十年1予左遷九江郡司馬2。明年秋,送客湓浦口3。聞船中夜彈琵琶者。聽其音,錚錚然有京都聲4。問其人,本長安倡女5,嘗學琵琶於穆、曹二善才6。年長色衰,委身為賈人婦7。遂命酒,使快彈數曲。
元和十年,我降職為九江郡司馬。第二年秋天,到湓浦口送客,聽見船中有夜彈琵琶的人,聲音錚錚地,甚帶京都韻調。詢問之下,才知彈奏的人原是長安藝妓,曾在穆曹兩大名手門下學習琵琶,年齡老去,容貌衰謝以後,嫁給了商人,成為良家婦女了。於是叫人排上酒席,請她隨意彈奏幾曲。
In the tenth year of Yuanhe I was banished and
demoted to be assistant official in Jiujiang.
In the summer of the next year I was seeing a friend leave Penpu and
heard in the midnight from a neighbouring boat a guitar played
in the manner of the capital.
Upon inquiry, I found that the player had formerly been a dancing-girl there and
in her maturity had been married to a merchant.
I invited her to my boat to have her play for us.
曲罷,憫默。自敍少小時歡樂事,今漂淪鷦顇,轉徙於江湖間。予出官二年,恬然自安,感斯人言,是夕始覺有遷謫意,因為長句歌以贈之。凡六百一十二言,命曰琵琶行。曲罷,憫默8。自敍少小時歡樂事,今漂淪鷦顇9轉徙10於江湖間。予出官11二年,恬然12自安,感斯人13言,是夕始覺有遷謫意,因為長句歌以贈之。凡六百一十二言14,命曰琵琶行。
彈罷,她鬱鬱地沉默半響,自己談起年輕時的歡樂情形,如今則是漂泊憔悴,在江湖之間遷移流轉而已。我自京師外調,降為郡官,兩年以來,非常恬靜,頗能安於自己的遭遇。這晚聽到這女子的話,才忽然生起貶官失意的落寞之感。於是作成長詩,唱來贈送給她。共六百一十二字,題為「琵琶行」。
She told me her story, heyday and then unhappiness.
Since my departure from the capital I had not felt sad;
but that night, after I left her,
I began to realize my banishment.
And I wrote this long poem --six hundred and twelve characters.
潯陽江頭夜送客,楓葉荻花秋索索。主人下馬客在船,舉酒欲飲無管弦。醉不成歡慘將別,別時茫茫江浸月。忽聞水上琵琶聲,主人忘歸客不發。潯陽江15頭夜送客,楓葉荻花秋索索16主人下馬客在船17,舉酒欲飲無管弦18醉不成歡19慘將別,別時茫茫江浸月。忽聞水上琵琶聲,主人忘歸客不發。
潯陽江頭,送行之夜,楓葉,荻花,冷冷逼人的秋意。主人下了馬送客上船,寂寞的酒杯排出了無聲的酒筵。淒涼的醉意只使別愁增添沉重,這握別的空虛呵──空虛,如月影在渺渺秋江浮動……呀!有貼水傳來的琵琶──是在夢中?讓主人忘卻歸途,讓客人解下征篷。
I was bidding a guest farewell, at night on the Xunyang River,
Where maple-leaves and full-grown rushes rustled in the autumn.
I, the host, had dismounted, my guest had boarded his boat,
And we raised our cups and wished to drink-but, alas, there was no music.
For all we had drunk we felt no joy and were parting from each other,
When the river widened mysteriously toward the full moon --
We had heard a sudden sound, a guitar across the water.
Host forgot to turn back home, and guest to go his way.
尋聲暗問彈者誰?琵琶聲停欲語遲。移船相近邀相見,添酒迴燈重開宴。千呼萬喚始出來,猶抱琵琶半遮面。尋聲暗問彈者誰?琵琶聲停欲語遲。移船相近邀相見,添酒迴燈20重開宴。千呼萬喚始出來,猶抱琵琶半遮面。
諦聽,追尋,「是誰呀──」輕輕地問,絃音止住了(在為答語躊躇?)久久地沉默不應。靠船過去,致意過去:「請來和司馬相見!」重添好酒,重掌華燈,重擺陳這場宵宴。千聲的邀請,萬遍的催,好容易纔跨出艙門,懷裏的琵琶仍遮蔽着女子大半個顏面。
We followed where the melody led and asked the player's name.
The sound broke off...then reluctantly she answered.
We moved our boat near hers, invited her to join us,
Summoned more wine and lanterns to recommence our banquet.
Yet we called and urged a thousand times before she started toward us,
Still hiding half her face from us behind her guitar.
轉軸撥弦三兩聲,未成曲調先有情。弦弦掩抑聲聲思,似訴平生不得意。低眉信手續續彈,說盡心中無限事。轉軸撥弦三兩聲,未成曲調先有情。弦弦掩抑21聲聲思,似訴平生不得意。低眉信手22續續彈,說盡心中無限事。
緊緊軸,調調絃──聽,這零星迸出的咚叮,在未成曲調之先,可不已飄來一縷哀情?彈吧,一根弦沉重過一根弦,一片聲幽怨過一片聲,彷彿在傾訴,傾訴此生的憔悴風塵;莊重地、從容地、靈活地、琵琶在指下續續顫鳴,無遺漏地表達出了一顆繁複的淒楚的心。
...She turned the tuning-pegs and tested several strings;
We could feel what she was feeling, even before she played:
Each string a meditation, each note a deep thought,
As if she were telling us the ache of her whole life.
She knit her brows, flexed her fingers, then began her music,
Little by little letting her heart share everything with ours.
輕攏慢撚抹復挑,初為霓裳後六么。大弦嘈嘈如急雨,小弦切切如私語。嘈嘈切切錯雜彈,大珠小珠落玉盤。間關鶯語花底滑,幽咽泉流水下灘。水泉冷澀弦疑絕,疑絕不通聲暫歇。輕攏慢撚抹復挑23初為霓裳後六么24大弦嘈嘈如急雨25小弦切切如私語26。嘈嘈切切錯雜彈,大珠小珠落玉盤。間關鶯語花底滑27,幽咽泉流水下灘。水泉冷澀弦疑絕28,疑絕不通聲暫歇。
輕敲,慢揉,緩撫,急挑,奏罷了《霓裳羽衣》,更奏出了《六么》。大弦嘈嘈,如盛夏的晴空急雨,小弦切切,如情人的春宵私語,嘈嘈聲與切切聲錯雜相彈,呵──大小珍珠,一顆顆掉落白玉的珠盤。「間關,間關」,有鶯語在花底滑轉,幽冷,嗚咽,有流水在冰下潺湲……──冰那麼冷,泉那麼澀,絃音凝固,封凍了!
She brushed the strings, twisted them slow, swept them, plucked them --
First the air of The Rainbow Skirt, then The Six Little Ones.
The large strings hummed like rain,
The small strings whispered like a secret,
Hummed, whispered-and then were intermingled
Like a pouring of large and small pearls into a plate of jade.
We heard an oriole, liquid, hidden among flowers.
We heard a brook bitterly sob along a bank of sand...
By the checking of its cold touch, the very string seemed broken
As though it could not pass; and the notes, dying away
別有幽愁暗恨生,此時無聲勝有聲。銀缾乍破水漿迸,鐵騎突出刀槍鳴。曲終收撥當心畫,四弦一聲如裂帛。東舟西舫悄無言,唯見江心秋月白。別有幽愁暗恨生,此時無聲勝有聲。銀缾乍破水漿迸29,鐵騎突出刀槍鳴。曲終收撥當心畫30,四弦一聲如裂帛。東舟西舫悄無言,唯見江心秋月白。
四座悄然,儘幻夢在耳邊繚繞,美妙的空寂呵,你反使新的哀愁暗暗滋生,這時的聲音消失,比充滿聲音還好。──像銀瓶炸破時的噴泉,一下子弦音飛迸,像鐵騎衝鋒時的戰陣,驀地裏劍戟鏗鳴,曲子──完了。牙片向當心一劃,四絃尖起急收,如綾羅撕成碎帕。滿江的船舶寂靜忘言,唯見江心的秋月,蒼白如畫。
Into a depth of sorrow and concealment of lament,
Told even more in silence than they had told in sound...
A silver vase abruptly broke with a gush of water,
And out leapt armored horses and weapons that clashed and smote --
And, before she laid her pick down, she ended with one stroke,
And all four strings made one sound, as of rending silk
There was quiet in the east boat and quiet in the west,
And we saw the white autumnal moon enter the river's heart.
沈吟放撥插弦中,整頓衣裳起斂容,自言本是京城女,家在蝦蟇陵下住。十三學得琵琶成,名屬教坊第一部。曲罷曾教善才伏,妝成每被秋娘妒。五陵年少爭纏頭,一曲紅綃不知數。鈿頭雲篦擊節碎,血色羅裙翻酒汙。沈吟放撥插弦中,整頓衣裳起斂容31,自言本是京城女,家在蝦蟇陵32下住。十三學得琵琶成,名屬教坊第一部33。曲罷曾教善才伏,妝成每被秋娘34妒。五陵年少爭纏頭35一曲紅綃不知數36鈿頭雲篦擊節碎37血色羅裙翻酒汙38
半晌沉吟,把牙片插置弦中,整衣正色,站起來,訴出了往事重重:「我本是京華的女兒,可逛過蝦蟆陵?我家,就在陵下居住。十三歲,我就學成了彈奏琵琶,那時的聲名?是的,在教坊中,我列居第一部。奏罷長曲,我曾使曠代的名手不敢批評,勻好新妝,我曾使遲暮的美人滿懷羞妒。滿都城的公子哥兒搶着賞給我「纏頭」,一曲方完,收到的紅綃,簡直不能計數。鑲金的雲篦,打節拍打碎了──多麼有趣!血紅的羅裙,給酒痕污損了──拋掉重做。
...When she had slowly placed the pick back among the strings,
She rose and smoothed her clothing and, formal courteous,
Told us how she had spent her girlhood at the capital,
Living in her parents' house under the Mount of Toads,
And had mastered the guitar at the age of thirteen,
With her name recorded first in the class-roll of musicians,
Her art the admiration even of experts,
Her beauty the envy of all the leading dancers,
How noble youths of Wuling had lavishly competed
And numberless red rolls of silk been given for one song,
And silver combs with shell inlay been snapped by her rhythms,
And skirts the colour of blood been spoiled with stains of wine....
今年歡笑復明年,秋月春風等閒度。弟走從軍阿姨死,暮去朝來顏色故,門前冷落鞍馬稀,老大嫁作商人婦。今年歡笑復明年,秋月春風等閒度。弟走從軍阿姨39死,暮去朝來顏色故40,門前冷落鞍馬稀,老大41嫁作商人婦。
今年歡笑過去,接着又是明年……璀燦的春,澄朗的秋,就這麼輕輕偷度。──弟弟從軍去了,阿姨死了,一個個黃昏追趕着一次次黎明,容顏漸暗蒙塵霧;門庭日益冷落,客人的車馬日益稀疏,老了!我,嫁給商人,變成了中年主婦。
Season after season, joy had followed joy,
Autumn moons and spring winds had passed without her heeding,
Till first her brother left for the war, and then her aunt died,
And evenings went and evenings came, and her beauty faded --
With ever fewer chariots and horses at her door;
So that finally she gave herself as wife to a merchant
商人重利輕別離,前月浮梁買茶去,去來江口守空船,繞船月明江水寒。夜深忽夢少年事,夢啼妝淚紅闌干。商人重利輕別離,前月浮梁42買茶去,去來江口守空船,繞船月明江水寒。夜深忽夢少年事,夢啼妝淚紅闌干43
商人捨不得微薄的利潤卻捨得長遠的別離,上月獨往浮梁,只為了賈茶前去。走後剩我一人,在江口孤守空船,上面是明月的徹夜清輝,下面是江水的深寒。午夜,忽然夢見年青時候的狂歡,我哭醒了,讓淚水洗掉脂粉,讓辛酸浸紅眼瞼……」
Who, prizing money first, careless how he left her,
Had gone, a month before, to Fuliang to buy tea.
And she had been tending an empty boat at the river's mouth,
No company but the bright moon and the cold water.
And sometimes in the deep of night she would dream of her triumphs
And be wakened from her dreams by the scalding of her tears.
我聞琵琶已歎息,又聞此語重唧唧。同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識。我從去年辭帝京,謫居臥病潯陽城。潯陽小處無音樂,終歲不聞絲竹聲。住近湓江地低溼,黃蘆苦竹繞宅生。我聞琵琶已歎息,又聞此語重唧唧44。同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識。我從去年辭帝京,謫居臥病潯陽城45。潯陽小處無音樂,終歲不聞絲竹聲。住近湓江地低溼,黃蘆苦竹46繞宅生。
琵琶中流出的怨情,已使我深深歎息,現在更聽到這段哀詞,如江岸的秋蟲唧唧!「你和我,同是落魄天涯的人,今日這番相逢,何須定要從前相識?我從去年離開帝京,貶官,鬧病,一直就枯守在這潯陽小城,這個偏僻的潯陽怎會尋到音樂?終年都聽不見弦管的聲音。住居又靠近湓江,地勢是那麼低溼,只黃蘆苦竹,繞屋子莽莽滋生。
Her very first guitar-note had started me sighing;
Now, having heard her story, I was sadder still.
"We are both unhappy -- to the sky's end.
We meet. We understand. What does acquaintance matter?
I came, a year ago, away from the capital
And am now a sick exile here in Jiujiang--
And so remote is Jiujiang that I have heard no music,
Neither string nor bamboo, for a whole year.
My quarters, near the River Town, are low and damp,
With bitter reeds and yellowed rushes all about the house.
其間旦暮聞何物?杜鵑啼血猿哀鳴。春江花朝秋月夜,往往取酒還獨傾。豈無山歌與村笛?嘔啞嘲哳難為聽。今夜聞君琵琶語,如聽仙樂耳暫明。莫辭更坐彈一曲,為君翻作琵琶行。其間旦暮聞何物?杜鵑啼血47猿哀鳴。春江花朝秋月夜,往往取酒還獨傾。豈無山歌與村笛?嘔啞嘲哳難為聽48。今夜聞君琵琶語,如聽仙樂耳暫明。莫辭更坐彈一曲,為君翻作49琵琶行。
這些時來,早晚能聽到些甚麼?杜鵑的悲啼與猿猴的哀鳴。春江花發,秋空月圓,清晨,良宵,拿起酒壺,往往是獨飲自斟。當然,這裏有山歌,也有村笛,呀,那股咿嗚聒噪,只使我掩上耳根!今夜能聽到你的琵琶的語言,彷彿仙樂天風,雙耳這霎時纔覺爽朗清明。請千萬不要推辭,再讓大家欣賞一曲,願替你譯作長詩,贈給你『琵琶行』。」
And what is to be heard here, morning and evening? --
The bleeding cry of cuckoos, the whimpering of apes.
On flowery spring mornings and moonlit autumn nights
I have often taken wine up and drunk it all alone,
Of course there are the mountain songs and the village pipes,
But they are crude and-strident, and grate on my ears.
And tonight, when I heard you playing your guitar,
I felt as if my hearing were bright with fairymusic.
Do not leave us. Come, sit down. Play for us again.
And I will write a long song concerning a guitar."
感我此言良久立,卻坐促弦弦轉急。淒淒不似向前聲,滿座重聞皆掩泣。座中泣下誰最多,江州司馬青衫溼。感我此言良久立,卻坐促弦50弦轉急。淒淒不似向前聲,滿座重聞皆掩泣。座中泣下誰最多,江州司馬青衫溼51
受到了我的話的感動?靜靜地站立許久,坐下來,催動弦絲,四條弦忽地雨狂風驟,情調的悽愴不像方纔的圓柔,滿座重聽的客人全流淚了,一個個掩上衣袖。座上流淚的人,誰流得最多,最悲哀?──江州司馬的青衫,早被淚痕溼透。
...Moved by what I said, she stood there for a moment,
Then sat again to her strings-and they sounded even sadder,
Although the tunes were different from those she had played before...
The feasters, all listening, covered their faces.
But who of them all was crying the most?
This Jiujiang official. My blue sleeve was wet.

導賞

白居易除了擅寫諷諭詩,他的敘事詩也十分著名,其中最膾炙人口的,是他的史詩式作品《長恨歌》。他有另一首為人熟知的作品《琵琶行》,也是長篇敘事詩,全詩八十八句,六百一十六字。詩中寫淪落天涯的琵琶女和被貶江州的詩人偶遇,引發出一個動人的場面。以六百多字寫一個晚上的聚會,可見其中的描寫十分細緻。
《琵琶行》詩前有序,說明寫這首詩的緣起。白居易說自己出任九江司馬時,有一晚送客到江邊,聽到鄰船有人彈奏琵琶,有京都的樂聲,便邀請彈奏者過船彈奏。彈奏者說自己年少時本是長安的歌伎,學得一手好琵琶,過着夜夜笙歌的生活,所得賞賜無數;但年長色衰時,只有嫁作商人婦,漂泊江湖之間。白居易聽到她的遭遇,忽然感慨起來,對自己被貶謫有所感觸,於是寫成這詩贈給她。
《琵琶行》用十二句寫遇到琵琶女的經過,用二十八句寫彈奏琵琶的情況,用二十二句寫琵琶女自述身世,用二十句寫自己因此勾起被貶謫的感慨而寫作此詩,最後六句寫再奏一曲時在座者的反應作結。
詩的開頭交代詩人在潯陽江頭夜送客,宴罷主客將別,忽然聽到水上傳來琵琶聲,於是邀請彈奏之人移船演奏,重新開宴。以下二十八句描寫演奏琵琶的情況。頭兩句「千呼萬喚始出來,猶抱琵琶半遮面」先寫演奏者的姿態,她遲遲不出來,又以琵琶半遮面,顯示了這女子的矜持,也增加了神祕感。下面寫演奏開始,最初八句先寫彈奏的手法和神態,其中在描寫彈奏手法中,穿插寫彈奏者的「情」。「未成曲調先有情」、「似訴平生不得志」、「說盡心中無限事」三句,說出彈奏者吸引作者的,是有濃厚的感情傾注在曲調之中。接着十四句由「輕攏慢撚抹復挑」至「此時無聲勝有聲」寫樂聲和演奏的技巧。視覺和聽覺是不同的感官,要用文字來表達聲音並不容易,要寫出樂音的美妙難度更高。白居易用大量比喻來寫琴音的特點,大的樂音像急雨,小的樂音像人喁喁細語,大小樂音錯綜起來,有如大和小的珍珠錯落地跌落玉製的盤中。以下四句除了以鶯語和泉流來比喻琴音,更描繪了不同景色來形容琴音的變化,像是從春天有紓緩喜悅的花間鳥語,變為冬天水泉冷澀而幾近凝固,至此聲音由漸低至幾乎完全停頓。白居易在此點出了樂曲中一些留白的作用,是「此時無聲勝有聲」。
後面四句寫琴音停頓後又陡然迸起,像銀瓶忽然爆破,琴音高亢,越來越響,像千軍萬馬刀鎗交併。當聲音到達高潮,聽眾情緒到了高峰時,演奏者忽然在琵琶四條弦線當心一畫,以一急速的、像撕裂布帛的聲音收結。下面四句寫曲終的情況,曲已奏完,但曲終人未散,聽者都不動不語,似乎仍未從音樂的振動中恢復過來。這是以聽眾的反應去襯托琴音的引人入勝,又以一句「唯見江心秋月白」寫景,襯托這個忽然寂靜的氣氛。最後描述演奏者放下琵琶站起,也是演奏的真正結束。
一向以來,以文學形式描寫音樂的作品不多,尤其以詩歌的形式來表達的更少。白居易以高超的文字技巧,使讀者感受了一場精采的琵琶演奏,如聞其聲,如見其人。用今天的分析術語,這可說是以「通感」的方法,讓讀者用眼睛去「聽」音樂。
詩人在描寫琵琶演奏完畢後,開始交代演奏者的身世,並以琵琶女自白的方式道出。她自言是京城人士,屬教坊中人,十三歲已學得一手好琵琶。「曲罷曾教善才伏」至「秋月春風等閒度」八句寫她年少時風光的日子,藝高貌美,富家子弟爭相饋贈,夜夜歡宴,笙歌不斷。可惜好景不常,在「弟走從軍阿姨死,暮去朝來顏色故」這兩句轉折之後,便是八句強烈對比的淪落生活:年華漸老,門庭冷落,只得嫁作商人婦,以求歸宿;但商人經常離家遠行,自己獨守空船,夜來夢到少年事,只有暗自飲泣。
詩人先受到琵琶演奏的振動,再聽了琵琶女的身世,興起了濃烈的感慨之情:「我聞琵琶已嘆息,又聞此語重唧唧。同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識?」琵琶女自繁華歸於平淡,老來嫁作商人婦,本也是這類人物的必然命運,並非特別感人肺腑,為何白居易卻對她傾注這樣濃烈的感情?這是因為他的感慨並非單純因外在的因素而來,而是這個外來的因素觸動了他內心一直埋藏着的悲情,藉這次聽琵琶而一併發泄出來。他表示自己去年貶謫至此,一直臥病。潯陽地處偏僻,終年聽不到樂聲,只有杜鵑和猿猴的哀鳴,以及難聽的山歌和村笛。《琵琶行》作於元和十一年(公元816年)秋。在這之前一年,白居易因宰相武元衡被刺事件開罪了朝廷的權貴,被貶為江州司馬。司馬是刺史的助手,聽起來好像不錯,但實際上,在中唐時期這個職位是專門安置「犯罪」官員的,是變相發配到某地去接受監督看管。當時江州(今江西九江市)地勢荒僻,環境惡劣,白居易臥病傷懷,四周更無一點開心解悶的東西。當然這是詩人主觀心情欠佳,所以舉目無可觀,聲聲難入耳。到他遇到琵琶女,首先吸引他的是「京都聲」,然後由琵琶女的身世引起他「同是天涯淪落人」的感慨。在苦悶寂寞中,他把琵琶女的琴音當作一種發泄和慰藉,有如得聞仙樂,更要為她寫作《琵琶行》。
最後,琵琶女也受到這位知音人感動,不免再奏一曲,琴聲卻比之前更哀怨,使聽眾都哭起來。「座中泣下誰最多,江州司馬青衫濕。」為何白居易哭得最厲害?已不言而喻了。他把歌詠者與被歌詠者的思想感情融而為一,大家命運相同、息息相關,最後同聲一哭,也令到千古讀者為之感動。
白居易的《琵琶行》是唐詩的名篇,詩中寫琵琶演奏一段,更為歷代人所讚賞,被喻為描述音樂的經典。這首詩中很多句子都成了千古傳誦的名句,有些我們到今天還經常使用,如「千呼萬喚始出來」、「此時無聲勝有聲」、「同是天涯淪落人,相逢何必曾相識」。這首詩雖然不及《長恨歌》的史詩式愛情故事為人熟悉,流傳沒有這麼廣,卻有另一角度的欣賞價值。它仔細記載了詩人自己的一個生活片段,遇到一些人,引起一種感慨。他遇到的琵琶女是社會中的小人物,可能被其他人遺忘,但他與這個琵琶女的相遇激起了一種強烈的感情,以詩歌記下了這個動人的片段。文學作品不一定要寫很偉大的事,或有很偉大的抱負才可流傳千古,只要寫得精采,寫得深刻,便值得後世人欣賞。
查閱次數:15521
資料來源:
朗讀:甘玉貞(粵)、張雅茜(普)
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註釋:《中國文學古典精華》,商務印書館(香港)有限公司
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譯文:《友聯活葉文選》,友聯出版社
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導賞:甘玉貞(文)、甘玉貞(粵)

作者/出處

白居易

白居易,生於唐代宗大曆七年,卒於唐武宗會昌六年(七七二──八四六)。字樂天,晚號香山居士,祖籍太原(今山西太原),後遷居下邽(今陝西渭南)。自幼聰慧,刻苦讀書。唐德宗貞元十六年(七九九)進士,初任校書郎,歷任翰林學士、左拾遺,因敢言直諫,上疏亟論宰相武元衡被盜殺事,為當政者所忌,貶為江州(今江西九江)司馬。其後歷任忠州、杭州、蘇州刺史,官至刑部尚書,晚年退居洛下,崇奉佛法。

白居易是中唐大詩人,與元稹齊名,並稱「元白」。他提倡「文章合為時而著,歌詩合為事而作」,反對「嘲風雪,弄花草」的文學,強調《詩經》的美刺傳統和杜甫的創作精神。白詩的特色是語言淺俗,使老嫗、兒童都能解讀,諷諭詩《秦中吟》及《新樂府》是其中的代表。晚年寫了不少閒適詩和感傷詩。有明萬曆三十四年(一六〇六)馬元調刊本《白氏長慶集》傳世。

查閱次數:2716
資料來源:
《中國文學古典精華》,商務印書館(香港)有限公司

創作背景

《琵琶行》選自《全唐詩》卷四百三十五,作於唐憲宗元和十一年(八一六)秋。據白居易自序云,作者於憲宗元和十年(八一五)被貶為九江郡(今江西九江)司馬。次年秋,送客於湓浦口。夜中偶逢琵琶女,從她的漂泊遭遇,想到自己仕途上的失意坎坷,遂寫成《琵琶行》。「同是天涯淪落人」句,是一篇之旨。

資料來源:
《中國文學古典精華》,商務印書館(香港)有限公司

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