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燕歌行 並序
A Song Of The Yan Country

開元二十六年,客有從御史大夫張公出塞而還者,作《燕歌行》以示適,感征戍之事,因而和焉。開元二十六年,客有從御史大夫張公出塞而還者,作《燕歌行》以示適,感征戍之事,因而和焉。
開元二十六年,有客人隨從主帥出塞回來,作了一首《燕歌行》給我看。有感於出征之事,因而和了這首詩。
In the sixth year of Kaiyuan,
A friend returned from the border and showed me the Yan Song.
Moved by what he told me of the expedition,
I have written this poem to the same rhymes.
漢家煙塵在東北,漢將辭家破殘賊。漢家煙塵1在東北,漢將辭家破殘賊。
戰爭的烽煙在東北邊升起,將士辭家去殺凶頑的殘賊。
The northeastern border of China was dark with smoke and dust.
To repel the savage invaders, our generals, leaving their families,
男兒本自重橫行,天子非常賜顏色。男兒本自重橫行2,天子非常賜顏色3
男兒應有橫闖敵軍的膽量,何況皇帝又格外賜予恩賞。
Strode forth together, looking as heroes should look;
And having received from the Emperor his most gracious favour,
摐金伐鼓下榆關,旌旆逶迤碣石間。摐金伐鼓下榆關4旌旆逶迤碣石間5
鳴鑼擊鼓浩浩蕩蕩出榆關,旌旗連綿不斷直到碣石間。
They marched to the beat of gong and drum through the Elm Pass.
They circled the Stone Tablet with a line of waving flags,
校尉羽書飛瀚海,單于獵火照狼山。校尉羽書飛瀚海6單于獵火照狼山7
校尉將緊急文書送過瀚海,單于打獵的篝火映照狼山。
Till their captains over the Sea of Sand were twanging feathered orders.
The Tartar chieftain's hunting-fires glimmered along Wolf Mountain,
山川蕭條極邊土,胡騎憑陵雜風雨。山川蕭條極邊土,胡騎憑陵雜風雨8
山川蕭條直到邊境的盡頭,胡人兵馬來勢像急風暴雨。
And heights and rivers were cold and bleak there at the outer border;
But soon the barbarians' horses were plunging through wind and rain.
戰士軍前半死生,美人帳下猶歌舞。戰士軍前半死生9美人帳下猶歌舞10
戰士浴血奮戰陣亡有一半,將軍帳中美人仍輕歌曼舞。
Half of our men at the front were killed, but the other half are living,
And still at the camp beautiful girls dance for them and sing.
大漠窮秋塞草腓,孤城落日鬥兵稀。大漠窮秋塞草腓11,孤城落日鬥兵稀。
深秋浩瀚的沙漠草木枯萎,落日下孤城鬥兵越來越少。
...As autumn ends in the grey sand, with the grasses all withered,
The few surviving watchers by the lonely wall at sunset,
身當恩遇恆輕敵,力盡關山未解圍。身當恩遇恆輕敵,力盡關山未解圍12
邊將身受國恩竟輕敵誤國,士卒苦戰仍難解關山之圍。
Serving in a good cause, hold life and the foeman lightly.
And yet, for all that they have done, Elm Pass is still unsafe.
鐵衣遠戍辛勤久,玉筯應啼別離後。鐵衣13遠戍辛勤久,玉筯應啼別離後14
戰士在邊地長期辛勤戍守,家中親人想念得痛苦淚流。
Still at the front, iron armour is worn and battered thin,
And here at home food-sticks are made of jade tears.
少婦城南欲斷腸,征人薊北空回首。少婦城南15欲斷腸,征人薊北16空回首。
少婦住在城南悲苦欲斷腸,征夫在薊北遙望空自哀嘆。
Still in this southern city young wives' hearts are breaking,
While soldiers at the northern border vainly look toward home.
邊庭飄颻那可度,絕域蒼茫更何有!邊庭飄颻那可度17絕域18蒼茫更何有!
戰爭形勢動盪哪裏可度量,邊疆除了荒涼無任何東西。
The fury of the wind cuts our men's advance
In a place of death and blue void, with nothingness ahead.
殺氣三時作陣雲,寒聲一夜傳刁斗。殺氣三時作陣雲,寒聲一夜傳刁斗19
早中晚騰騰殺氣化作陣雲,整夜只聽到悲涼的刁斗聲。
Three times a day a cloud of slaughter rises over the camp;
And all night long the hour-drums shake their chilly booming,
相看白刃血紛紛,死節從來豈顧勳。相看白刃20紛紛,死節從來豈顧勳21
短兵相接刀鋒上血染紛紛,為國捐軀哪顧得個人功勳?
Until white swords can be seen again, spattered with red blood.
...When death becomes a duty, who stops to think of fame?
君不見沙場征戰苦,至今猶憶李將軍。君不見沙場征戰苦,至今猶憶李將軍22
你不見沙場上戰爭的殘酷,至今人們還懷念李廣將軍。
Yet in speaking of the rigours of warfare on the desert
We name to this day Li, the great General, who lived long ago.

導賞

一、此詩從邊塞生活中概括、提煉出數個具有典型意義的場景,通過一個戰役全過程的描寫,譴責主帥的荒唐,哀傷士卒的艱辛,慨嘆良將的難得,對戰士顧全大節、決心殉身苦鬥的精神,亦深寓歌頌之情。思想內容相當豐富。
二、本詩是盛唐邊塞詩中最負盛名的作品,其最顯著的藝術特點有三:
1. 形象、場景迥異的畫面迅速轉換:忽而是耀武揚威的進軍,忽而是死傷過半的慘敗,忽而是少婦思念征人,肝腸寸斷,忽而是征人薊北回首,欲歸不能,忽而是白刃格鬥,以死報國。此種形象、場景之迅速轉換,與換韻相配合。此詩四句一換韻,韻換景即新。這樣,不但能夠表現出整個戰役的迅速發展變化,而且以急促、緊張的音響震憾人心,使人如歷戰場之實境。
2. 鮮明的對比:如出師的鋪張揚厲大搖大擺和戰敗的狼狽淒涼;戰士艱苦奮戰和主帥的歌舞行樂,等等。
3. 場景轉換,情調亦變,時而高亢雄邁,時而沉鬱憤懣,時而哀怨沉痛,時而慷慨激昂,時而感傷嘆息。因所寫形象、場景之不同,而自然形成情調上的起伏跌宕。

查閱次數:4662
資料來源:
朗讀:錢景亮(粵)、洪斯穎(普)
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註釋:《中國文學古典精華》,商務印書館(香港)有限公司
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譯文:邱鎮京、邱宜文,《古典詩詞鑑賞》,文津出版社
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導賞:邱鎮京、邱宜文,《古典詩詞鑑賞》,文津出版社(文)、錢景亮(粵)、白晶(普)

作者/出處

高適

高適,生於唐武后長安二年,卒於唐代宗永泰元年(七〇二──七六五)。字達夫,滄州勃海(今河北南皮)人。少家貧。後遊河西,節度使哥舒翰薦為書記,累陞淮南、西川等地節度使。代宗時先後任刑部侍郎、散騎常侍,封勃海縣侯。

高適少時狂放不羈,有懷才不遇之歎,然晚年得志,為唐代詩人中最顯達者。由於久居邊陲,熟悉軍旅生活,故邊塞詩特多。他擅於以七言歌行,描寫塞外險奇的風光和悲壯的戰事,也抒發了征夫的愁苦和怨婦的情懷。高適與岑參以詩齊名,他雖不如岑的奔放,然格調高遠,則為岑所不及。除七言歌行外,五古、七古、律詩、絕句和樂府等都有佳作。有集二卷。

查閱次數:2450
資料來源:
《中國文學古典精華》,商務印書館(香港)有限公司

創作背景

本詩選自《全唐詩》卷二百一十三,作於唐玄宗開元二十六年(七三八)。燕歌行屬樂府《相和歌‧平調曲》舊題,歌辭多詠東北邊地征戍之情。燕,在河北一帶。詩序所言的張公即張守珪,是當時鎮守北邊的名將。後因恃功驕縱,不惜士卒,任其生死,遂激發高適寫成此詩。詩中描述將帥醉生夢死的生活與士卒艱險犯難的遭際,成一強烈對照,歎息國家軍機大事,不得其人。此詩的格調,時而激昂,時而沉鬱,悲壯動人。

資料來源:
《中國文學古典精華》,商務印書館(香港)有限公司

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